The following books, articles and maps provide information on tramways in Brazil in general or in more than one city. Unpublished sources of information, such as correspondence, interviews and builders' lists, are omitted. Places of publication that are cited frequently are abbreviated: L = London; NY = New York; RJ = Rio de Janeiro; SP = São Paulo; W = Washington. The location of an article in a periodical is indicated as follows: year/month/day, page(s).


Abbink, John. "Looking at Transit in South America." Transit Journal (NY), 1939/5, 162-4. Brief survey, mostly concerning fares.

Almanak Administrativo, Mercantil e Industrial ("Almanak Laemmert"). RJ, 1844-1940. Early tram data, especially for Rio de Janeiro.

American & Foreign Power Company. Annual Reports, 1927-36. NY, 1928-37. Tramways acquired by the Electric Bond & Share Company.

"American & Foreign Power Company." Moody's Manual of Investments, 1927-. NY, 1928-. Yearly accounts provide more detail than Annual Reports. Table on p. 2179 of 1931 volume lists all rail operations in Latin America in 1930.

Annuario de Minas Geraes. 6 vols., Belo Horizonte, 1906-18. The descriptions of towns in vols. IV (1911), V (1913) and VI (1918) make frequent references to tramways. Tramway lists in vol. IV, pp. 163-5 and 251-2.

Berner, Allan J. "Foreign Trolley Lines." Railroad (NY), 1965/2, 39-40. "Brazilian Trolley Lines." Railroad, 1965/3, 38-9. Illustrated surveys of 12 tramways operating in 1964.

"Bonde: Uma Saudade ou uma Solução?" Petrobrás (RJ) no. 280, 1977/4, 22-9. Brief history of trams in Brazil's capital cities.

Brazil. Commissão Brazileira na Exposição Universal de Vienna, 1873. The Empire of Brazil at the Vienna Universal Exhibition of 1873. RJ, 1873. (Also published in Portuguese, French and German editions.) Valuable data on early tramways, pp. 229-33. Also see pp. 334-40 of pamphlet issued at Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876.

Brazil. Directoria Geral de Estatística. Bulletin Commémoratif de l'Exposition Nationale de 1908. RJ, 1908. fold-out chart and tramway list, pp. 138-9.

Brazil. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Anuario Estatístico do Brasil, 1912-59. RJ, 1917-59. (Issued by Ministério da Agricultura, Indústria e Commércio, 1917; Instituto Nacional de Estatística, 1930-7.) Principal source of tramway statistics. But uneven: in some years only capital cities reported; some systems ignored in all years.

"Brazil. IBGE (see above). Enciclopédia dos Municípios Brasileiros. 36 vols., RJ, 1957-8. Mammoth survey, with thousands of photos, of every Brazilian town. Little tram data, but many pictures of cars.

Brazil. IBGE (see above). Conselho Nacional de Geografia. I Centenário das Ferrovias Brasileiras. RJ, 1954. Description of "railroad" tramways: Campos do Jordão, Corcovado, Nova Lima, Votorantim.

Brazil. IBGE (see above). Serviço Nacional de Recenseamento. Recenseamento Geral de 1950. RJ, 1958. "Carris Urbanos," vol. IV, pp. 93-101. Tram statistics by state, rather than by city.

Brazil. Ministério da Agricultura, Commércio e Obras Públicas. Relatórios & Annexos, 1862-1909. (Issued by Ministério da Indústria, Viação e Obras Públicas, 1893-1909.) RJ, 1862-1909. Uneven but valuable chapters on "Ferro-Carris," especially 1882 ff. 1902 volume has fold-out tramway chart.

Brazil. Ministério da Agricultura, Indústria e Commércio. Directoria Geral de Estatística. Relatório dos Trabalhos dos Annos de 1916 e 1917. RJ, 1921. "Carris Urbanos," pp. 196-7. Discussion of difficulty of obtaining tram data. Only mention, in government literature, of lines in Cataguases and Mendes.

Brazil. Serviço Geográphico do Exército. Topographic maps, at scales 1:25,000 & 1:50,000. RJ, 1922-46. Superb tramway detail.

Brazil-Ferro-Carril. RJ, 1910-50. Trade journal. Many news items on trams, but only one feature article (Guarujá). Data also on telephony, telegraphy, radio, television, aviation, etc.

Brazilian Review. RJ, 1898-1914. Business, politics, gossip, many notes on trams.

"Brazilian Traction, Light & Power Co., Ltd." Electric Railway & Tramway Journal (L), 1923/8/10, 71. Roster and other data for Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and - unexpected - Sorocaba.

Brill Magazine. Philadelphia, 1907-27. Illustrated articles on trams built for Campinas, Salvador, Recife, Petrópolis, São Paulo, Piraju, Guaratinguetá, São Luís, Pelotas and Rio de Janeiro. No mention of cars that Brill built during this period for Belo Horizonte, Juiz de Fora, Vitória, Vila Velha, Maceió, Rio Grande and Belém.

Cattell, Edward J. South America. Philadelphia, 1903. Tramway index, p. 20. Primitive, but pioneer.

Cavers, David F., and Nelson, James R. Electric Power Regulation in Latin America. Baltimore, 1959. The development of the electrical industry, with emphasis on present situation.

Clark, Earl W. Directory of World Electric Lines. Cincinnati, 1964, 1967 & 1971. Descriptions of lines operating. Reports of abandonments.

Claydon, G. B., and Mather, G. "South American Tramways Today." Modern Tramway (L), 1977/8, 271-9; 1977/9, 300-5. Detailed descriptions, with photos and maps, of lines in Rio de Janeiro and Campos do Jordão.

De Groote, Raymond, Jr. "Visit to Brazil." Modern Tramway Review, pp. 25-39. L, nd (1964). Pioneer survey with excellent photographs and maps.

Electric Railway Journal: see Street Railway Journal

Electrical Review. L, 1872-. One of the most useful trade journals: good international coverage, good indexes.

Electrical World. NY, 1883-. Trade journal. Feature articles on Belém, Juiz de Fora, Manaus and Salvador (see Part 8).

The Electrician. L, 1878-1962. Trade journal. Frequent news items on Brazilian tramways. Noted for its fold-out charts and "Annual Tables" of electric railways.

Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift. Berlin, 1880-. Trade journal. The best source of information about German tramways in Brazil.

Energia Elétrica no Brasil: Da Primeira Lâmpada à Eletrobrás. RJ, 1977. Illustrated history of electric industry in Brazil.

Engineering Magazine. Engineering Index. NY, 1884-. Annual summaries of articles on engineering subjects, including street railways.

Floyd, Arthur. "South American Cities Have Fine Railway Service." Electric Railway Journal (NY), 1928/6/30, 1073-4. Survey of tramways in four countries. Emphasis on Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

Garcke's Manual of Electrical Undertakings. L, 1896-. Financial data on English-owned tramways.

Gauld, Charles A. The Last Titan: Percival Farquhar, American Entrepreneur in Latin America. Stanford, 1972. Founding of Rio de Janeiro TL&P, pp. 65-82; Bahia TL&P, pp. 83-9. Excellent notes and bibliography.

General Electric Review. Schenectady, 1903-58. Most of the discussion concerns the U.S., but there are lists of foreign orders.

General Electric, S.A. "Development of the Electrical Industry in Brazil." Brazil (RJ), 1928.

Hadfield, William. Brazil and the River Plate. L, 1877. Diary of author's 1870 journey. Tramways in Salvador, pp. 22-3; Rio de Janeiro, pp. 26-7, 174-6, 182-4; Recife, pp. 190-1.

Halsey, Frederic M. Investments in Latin America and the British West Indies. W, 1918. Tramway finances in 12 Brazilian cities, pp. 164-72, 506-7.

Hartley, H. Livingston. "Electric Tramways in Pernambuco." Brazilian Business (RJ), 1929/8, 9-10. Description of tramways in Recife, Fortaleza, Maceió, Natal and João Pessoa.

Lind, Alan R. From Horsecars to Streamliners: An Illustrated History of the St. Louis Car Co. Park Forest, 1978. Order list shows trams for São Paulo, Niterói, Manaus and Rio de Janeiro.

Lloyd, Reginald. Twentieth Century Impressions of Brazil. (Also published in Portuguese as Impressões do Brasil no Século Vinte.) L, 1913. Extraordinary 1070-page description, with many tram photos. Chapters on Rio de Janeiro TL&P, pp. 500-9; Trajano de Medeiros (tram builder), pp. 542-4.

Meili, Julio. O Meio Circulante no Brasil. Zürich, 1903. (Vol. 3 of author's Das Brasilianische Geldwesen.) "Bilhetes de Omnibus, Barcas e Bonds," plates 125-30. Reproduction of 85 tram tickets from 18 Brazilian cities.

Minas Gerais. Serviço de Estatística Geral. Album Chorográphico Municipal do Estado de Minas Geraes. Belo Horizonte, 1927. Maps of every municipality (not city) in state, showing tramways in Sacramento, Campanha, Guarará, Nova Lima and São Gonçalo do Sapucaí.

Minas Gerais. Serviço de Estatística Geral. Annuario Estatístico de Minas Geraes, 1921 & 1922/1925. Belo Horizonte, 1922 & 1929. Statistics of state's tramways: 1921, v. 3, pp. 568-70; 1922/1925, pp. 660-2.

Monteiro, A. Rodrigues. Como os Trustes Exploram o Brasil. RJ, 1952. 189-page diatribe against yanqui imperialism.

Morrison, Allen. "Os Bondes nos Cartões Postais Brasileiros." Boletim da Sociedade Brasileira de Cartofilia (Brasília), 1986/7, 2-3. Brazilian postcards showing trams.

Mulhall, Michael G. and Edward T. Handbook of Brazil. Buenos Aires, 1877. Financial status of 14 tramway companies, pp. 30-1.

"The Neutral Markets of the World: Their Opportunities. Brazil." Electrical Review (L), 1906/3/23, 493-4. Good description of economic situation, with emphasis on tramways.

Ogelsby, J. C. M. Gringos from the Far North. Toronto, 1978. Early development of Brazilian Traction Corporation.

Passer, Harold C. The Electrical Manufacturers, 1875-1900. Cambridge (Mass.), 1953. The development of General Electric, Westinghouse, et al. "Electric Power," pp. 211-345.

Reimers, Heinrich Johannes. Reise-Führer von Europa nach Südamerika. Hamburg, 1909. First guidebook to cover all Brazil. Tramway references. Text in German and Spanish, but not Portuguese.

Revista das Estradas de Ferro. RJ, 1925-50. Railroad trade magazine similar to Brazil-Ferro-Carril. Occasional tram references.

Rio Grande do Sul. Departamento Estadual de Estatística. Anuário, 1940. Porto Alegre, 1940. Tramway statistics 1930-40 for Porto Alegre, Pelotas and Rio Grande.

Rippy, James Fred. British Investments in Latin America. Minneapolis, 1959. Appendix B, pp. 242-5, contains valuable list of electric utilities.

Rippy, James Fred. Latin America and the Industrial Age. NY, 1944. Good general survey, extensive bibliography. But information on trams, pp. 209-10, is erroneous.

Robinson, Henry Leslie. "American & Foreign Power Company in Latin America: A Case Study." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1967.

São Paulo (state). Commissão Geográphica e Geológica. About 75 topographic maps, scales 1:50,000 & 1:100,000. SP, 1905-30. Excellent detail for tramways in São Paulo area and interurban lines to Cabras, Campos do Jordão and Monte Alto.

São Paulo (state). Repartição de Estatística. Annuario Estatístico de São Paulo, 1913-21. SP, 1915-26. "Viação Urbana" in vol. 2 each year. Only published statistics for Piraju.

Sociedade de Geographia do Rio de Janeiro. Geographia do Brasil. RJ, 1922. Extraordinary description of tramways in Minas Gerais state, pp. 315-16.

South American Handbook. L, 1922-. Descriptions of Brazilian cities include tramway references.

South American Journal. L, 1863-1955. Business, finance, tram news.

South American Year Book. L, 1913 & 1915 (two editions, similar data). Section on "Electric Light, Power and Tramway Companies" describes operations in 12 Brazilian cities. One of the first objective surveys.

Stiel, Waldemar Corrêa. História do Transporte Urbano no Brasil. Brasília, 1984. Attempt to describe all tramways in Brazil.

Stiel, Waldemar Corrêa. História dos Transportes Coletivos em São Paulo. SP, 1978. Eleven tram systems in São Paulo state, with emphasis on São Paulo city.

Street Railway Journal. NY, 1884-1942. (Name changed to Electric Railway Journal, 1908; to Transit Journal, 1932.) Principal American trade journal. Feature articles on Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and São Paulo; news items on other cities; general articles.

Tramway & Railway World. L, 1892-. (Name changed to Transport World, 1932.) Principal British trade journal. Feature article on Belém. Occasional news items on other cities.

"Transportation Facilities in South America." Street Railway Journal (NY), 1907/4/27, 728-9. Pioneer tramway survey, with emphasis on West Coast.

United States. Bureau of Foreign & Domestic Commerce. Latin American Transportation Survey. 14 vols., W, 1942-5. Brazilian tramways, no. 507, pp. 228-30. Rearrangement, by state, of data from 1937 Supplement to bureau's World Survey of Foreign Railways (below).

United States. BFDC (see above). Special Consular Reports no. 60 (1913): "Foreign Markets for Railway Supplies and Equipment." Brief description of a dozen Brazilian tramways.

United States. BFDC (see above). World Survey of Foreign Railways. W, 1933. 448-page list of railroads and tramways. Supplement pages, issued 1935-7, add entries, make corrections, note closures. Uneven, but valuable data on rolling stock, system length, gauge, finances, etc. Includes several tramways missing from Brazilian surveys.

United States. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. Special Reports. Street and Electric Railways, 1907. W, 1910. Brief description of operations in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Salvador and Belém, pp. 308-9. Data represent 1908-9 period.

Vasconcelos, Max de. Vias Brasileiras de Comunicação. Six editions, RJ, 1934-47. Descriptions, km by km, of principal Brazilian railroad lines, towns enroute, tramways, etc. Fold-out maps.

Wright, Marie Robinson. The New Brazil. Philadelphia, 1908. Impressive 450-page description. Many illustrations show trams.