spanning both sides of the Tigris River, is the capital of Iraq and a commercial and transportation center. An ancient city, it rose to importance as the center of Islam and was second only to Constantinople as a trade and cultural center. Baghdad became part of the Ottomon Empire in 1638, was captured by the British in 1917, and became the capital of Iraq in 1921. A horse tramway connecting Baghdad with a mosque at Kamazene was opened in 1871. It was 2.5 miles long and still running in World War II. These two postcard views show the double-deck horsecars. The only other tramway in Iraq was a horse-drawn line from Kufa to Nejif.